Modular versus Integrated

Modularity and integration happens throughout the value chain, and is the key to providing a superior user experience and extracting profits.

Netflix and the Conservation of Attractive Profits

Netflix has a lot more in common with Uber and Airbnb than you might think: it all comes back to the Law of Conservation of Attractive Profits, a core principle of disruption.

Intel and the Danger of Integration

Intel is in an increasingly bad position in part because it has been captive to its integrated model. Or, you could simply say they were disrupted.

Apple at Its Best

Apple’s original competitive advantage — the integration of hardware and software — is more durable than disruption theory would suggest.

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